Brownfield Sites

Click on a Brownfield site (purple star) to learn more information about that site.

Beartown #6 Beartown #2 Mud Lakes Assinins Lindemann Road Ben Road Sand Point Draper Power Dam Road Tailor Road Bear Trail Pikes Peak Rantanen-Herman S. Johnson Road

Mud Lakes

The property is a typical non-tidal marsh commonly found in the northern U.S. It is low-lying and is likely close in elevation to Lake Superior. Approximately two-thirds of the property is marsh with interconnected bodies of open water comprising the remaining third. A small stream that enters from the southwest supplies the marshes and ponds with water and discharges to Lake Superior near the northeast border of the property adjacent to the metal fabricating shop. KBIC was involved in a Wetlands Reserve Program (administered by the Natural Resources Conservation Service) in the late 1990s that provided for the construction of a water control structure in order to stabilize water levels. There is an unpaved road on the northern portion of the Lakes that leads to a wildlife-viewing platform. Illegal dumping has occurred along the northeastern and eastern boundaries of the property. Refuse includes petroleum products, building debris, household wastes and may include industrial wastes as well. NR staff has also observed stained soils and an oily sheen on surface waters. Phase I & II Environmental Site work has been completed at the site including soil, surface water, and sediment sampling.

Beartown #2

The Beartown Road #2 site is an approximate ½ acre portion of an 80 acre parcel of Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC) Trust land. The property is vacant forest land. The Little Carp Creek runs northeast through the property. Unregulated dumping of household garbage, tires, oil filters and appliances extends approximately ¼ acre directly adjacent to the Little Carp Creek in a ravine bordering Beartown Road. A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment was completed in May 2011. Site issues consisted of open dumping of hazardous and household waste. NRD staff conducted a Phase II Environmental Site Assessment in July 2011 consisting of 5 soil samples.

Lindemann Road

The subject property is a partly forested residential lease parcel bordering the south side of Lindemann Road. KBNRD inspected the property during a driving survey on April 24, 2007. There were two trailers (one was dilapidated, the other was older but intact) and approximately fifty percent of the subject property was covered in dumped debris. KBNRD again visited the property on May 14, 2008 after the dilapidated trailer was burned. KBNRD conducted a site visit on November 12, 2008. Some of the dumped material seen in 2007 and May 2008 was no longer observed and the footprint of the burned trailer had been graded over. The second older trailer had been removed and a new trailer was sitting up on concrete blocks. Site issues included burnt trailer remains, buried debris, vehicles, vehicle parts, petroleum product containers and unknown garbage across southern portion of property.

Ben Road

The property is KBIC Trust Land currently leased as residential. The property is largely forested land with a small stream running east and west. Environmental concerns include dumped material such as automobile parts, barrels, tires, appliances, and gas tanks. The dumped material is scattered over the entire property extending to the residence. Before a new lease and residence is established at the site an environmental assessment should be conducted to determine the current environmental condition of the property. 

A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment was conducted in June 2012. Site issues included crushed junk vehicle, buried debris, ground depression, mounded soil, and open dumping. NRD staff conducted soil sampling at 15 locations in August 2012.

Draper Lakeshore

Following an All Appropriate Inquiry, KBIC purchased the property from the previous owners, Audrey Draper Chapman and Marion Draper Braem (the Drapers). The Drapers used the lakeside property as a lot on which they parked and resided in a RV during the summer. Standard Oil, Grand Rapids Trust Company, Rubicon Lumber Company, and numerous other private individuals have previously owned the property. According to the Drapers, a knowledgeable person, and historic air photos, a gas station was formerly located on the property. 

The property is currently vacant. The portion where the former gas station is suspected to have been is gravel-covered, level, and appears to consist of fill soils. This area is slightly higher in elevation than the rest of the property. The remaining portion of the property is low lying and ranges from flat to rolling terrain covered in grasses, small shrubs, and trees ranging in various sizes. There are vehicle remnants (a car frame with engine block) partially buried and covered with vegetation, suggesting the possibility that there may be more refuse buried on the property. Two pipes that extend vertically out of the ground may indicate the presence of underground storage tanks (USTs) that remain on the premises.

A geophysical survey of the property was conducted by EPA Region 5 staff in 2008 to determine the location of any underground storage tanks (USTs) or buried metal objects  associated   with   the   former   gas  station. Tribal  Construction  was  later     

awarded the bid in 2008 to excavate four areas of concern on the property. Excavation activities began in June 2009 and  uncovered  a  point well; various  scrap metal, and two small USTs which  were removed from the  property.  A waste disposal firm was hired to pump out  tank contents and remove a  small amount of impacted soil  found during the tank removal. Natural Resources staff sampled the tank liquid and soil in the excavation. Down gradient groundwater and surface water was also sampled. Laboratory testing indicated contaminants were not a concern in the tank  excavation; therefore, the excavation was filled in.  Additional ground water sampling was conducted in 2011.

Beartown #6

The property is KBIC owned CFR land. The Tribe acquired the property in August 2003. Prior owners include Escanaba Paper Company, Mead Corporation, Upper Peninsula Land Company, Timmead Incorporated, Celotex Corporation, and Ford Motor Company. The property includes various marsh and swamp communities associated with the Kelsey Creek riverian system including but not limited to cattail marsh, open water marsh, reed canary marsh, mixed cedar and deciduous swamp, and alder swamp thickets. The property also includes forested areas.

Environmental concerns include areas of dumping extending through approximately 1/2 acre of the property, located near Kelsey Creek riverian area. Dumped material includes old cars, batteries, tires, appliances, household trash, motor oil, burn barrels and various other materials. 

As a highly productive ecosystem, the property plays an integral role in maintaining the quality of the local watershed and wildlife ecology as well as provide habitat for many animals, including migratory waterfowl and federally protected species such as the bald eagle and grey wolf. This property and connecting properties along Kelsey Creek provide an ecological corridor for these important species. Efforts are under way to establish wild rice in the wetland area and surrounding properties along Kelsey Creek. The Tribe also would like to build Osprey nesting platforms along the creek.  
A draft Phase I ESA was completed in May 2011. Through the Phase I process it was determined that materials observed on the property (household trash and three containers) were determined to be de minimis and majority of open dumping (burn barrels, containers, vehicle parts, etc.) was located on adjacent private properties.


The property is KBIC Trust Land. The former Tribal Center, which housed government offices, was located on the property. The building was originally built in 1928 as part of a mission and orphanage complex. The Tribe began operating their government offices in the building on October 4, 1971 until August 2, 1995. The building was demolished in 1996. The property is currently vacant land. Some building material, white goods, barrels and other debris still remain on the property. A weather station is also located on the property.

Environmental concerns include possible asbestos and lead contamination from the old building and building material left on the property. Illegal dumping of household goods has historically occurred on this property. An underground storage tank used for heating oil was formerly present on the property and was reported to have been removed. Removal records cannot be located. 

A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment was completed in May 2010. Site issues included demolition of the former Tribal Center building, orphan drums, mounded soil, soil staining, open dumping of solid waste and reported underground storage tanks. An EPA staff member conducted a geophysical survey on the property to search for possible underground storage tanks in June 2010. An anomaly of a possible tank location was marked with flagging and chalk. Additional anomalies were indicated on a map printout of the geo survey. EPA contractor, Weston

Solutions, sampled the contents of the two orphan drums and sent samples to a downstate lab for analysis in July 2010. The analysis results indicate the drum contents can be disposed of as non-hazardous waste. KBNRD contracted with consultant, TriMedia, to conduct asbestos inspection and bulk sampling of soil and materials on the property in August 2010. One sample from dumpsite debris came back positive for asbestos but was not a concern to NRD sampling staff due to it being non-friable. The EPA approved the SAP and HASP for surface soil sampling on August 16, 2010. NRD staff completed soil sampling on August 17, 2010.

Sand Point

The Sand Point site is KBIC Tribal Trust property, wholly owned by KBIC and located entirely within the KBIC L'Anse Reservation boundaries. Sand Point totals several hundred acres in size.  The Site itself consists of an extensive beach area, approximately 45 acres in size, with approximately 2.5 miles of lake front, located on the west side of Keweenaw Bay of Lake Superior.  This property has great potential for recreational development, but prior to cleanup consisted of a bare, sparsely vegetated wasteland.

The Sand Point site is impacted by industrial copper mining processing waste (stamp sands) from the Mass Mill, an early 20th century copper ore processing plant that was located approximately 4 miles north of Sand Point.  During copper ore processing at the Mass Mill, billions of pounds of stamp sand waste was deposited into Keweenaw Bay.  Lake currents have since carried these stamp sands southward and deposited them onto the 2.5 miles of the Community's property at Sand Point. Some of the problems created by the stamp sand deposits include high concentrations of heavy metals; copper, mercury, and arsenic contamination in the groundwater, surface water, and sediments; deficiencies of major nutrients and near toxic levels of copper and iron concentration exist in the plant vegetation.  High concentrations of copper, mercury and arsenic have also been found in fish samples.

With help from the U.S. EPA, the Great Lakes Commission - Soil Erosion and Sediment Control Program, USDA - National Resource Conservation Service, and Upper Peninsula Resource Conservation and Development Council, a soil cover was constructed over approximately 35 acres of stamp sands at Sand Point, a tribally owned beach area along the western shore of Lake Superior’s Keweenaw Bay. The soil cover will serve to decrease contaminant loading into Keweenaw Bay by reducing stamp sand erosion, increase biodiversity, and allow for vegetation growth on a previously barren landscape. Remediation efforts continue at Sand Point.

Pikes Peak

The property is KBIC CFR land. The property was purchased in 2001. Previous owners include the State of Michigan and several private owners. The property is currently vacant land with a mix of cleared and forested areas. A half circle drive runs directly off Pikes Peak Road on the property where the majority of the dumped material can be found. Containers of oil, stressed vegetation and soil staining are nearby in an area of low lying shrubs. Dumping in this area is an ongoing problem. 

A Phase I ESA was completed in September 2010.  Site issues included soil staining, open dumping of solid waste and household hazardous waste and solid waste burning.  A SAP and HASP was completed and approved by the EPA on October 4, 2010.  Natural Resource Department staff sampled surface soil on October 20, 2010.

S. Johnson Road

The South Johnson Road property consists of 30 acres of forested rural residential land located north and east of the end of S. Johnson Rd. approximately one half mile east of Pequaming Road in L'Anse Township. The property has past issues of illegal dumping, a dump fire, and buried debris. A Phase I Environmental Assessment was completed in July 2008. NRD staff completed soil sampling May 27, 2009.

Bear Trail

The Bear Trail property is located east of the intersection of Skanee and Tailor Road in L'Anse Township. The property is 80 acres of forested terrain with overgrown clearings in the center and scattered small clearings to the south. The property has a history of residential use; however, local residents currently use the unoccupied property for off road vehicles. A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment was completed in May 2010. Site issues included open dumping of vehicles, vehicle parts, petroleum containers, burn barrels, drums, appliances, and household waste. Areas of soil staining and no vegetation were also observed on the property. A Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) along with a Health and Safety Plan (HASP) was prepared in order to sample soil in areas of concern. EPA approved the property SAP in June 2010. Soon after, Natural Resource Department staff sampled surface soil on June 7, 2010

Tailor Road

The property was originally allotted to a tribal member in 1894 and was passed to heirs. Currently, a majority percentage is owned by the United States in Trust for the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC); the remaining is allotted. The property was used for residential purposes until sometime in 2004, when the existing residence burned down in a house fire. KBIC removed debris from the property in 2006 as part of an Open Dump Cleanup Grant and “No Dumping” signs were posted. 

KBNRD conducted site visits on October 20 and 21, 2008. The property was unoccupied with two built structures: an older shed and barn. Dumpsites, soil staining, stressed vegetation and other property observations were located on the northwest, south and eastern portions of the property, away from the former residence site. 

The draft Tailor Road Property Phase I ESA was completed on October 8, 2009. The Phase I ESA was finalized on January 14, 2010. Several site issues were identified including open dumping of household waste and household hazardous waste, areas of soil staining or no vegetation, 55-gallon drum, burn barrels, petroleum or unknown containers and unknown shingle-type material. 

After soliciting bids, KBIC contracted TriMedia Environmental & Engineering Services to conduct asbestos inspection and bulk sampling of a dumpsite containing unknown shingle-type material on August 9, 2010. Lab analytical results indicated the shingle-type material to be cement board (Transite) containing regulated quantities of asbestos.

Power Dam

The property is 28 acres of mostly flat, low-lying terrain located entirely within the KBIC L’Anse Reservation at the intersection of Power Dam Road and US-41.  The property is trust land restricted to tribal members for residential or business lease.  Fifty percent of the site is forested while the other half is occupied with residential and businesses. Highway US-41 divides the property into east and west.  One residence and two outbuildings are located to the east.  Four residences with one outbuilding, junkyard, a fish shop building, self- storage building, and a small fireworks stand are located to the west. 

The focus the Phase I Environmental Assessment completed in was the larger western portion and location of the junkyard.  The junkyard covers approximately 11 acres of the property and consists of: old vehicles, storage tanks, drums and containers with unknown contents, batteries, heavy machinery, farm machinery, tires, gas tanks, oil filters, vehicle engines, miscellaneous vehicle parts, scrap metal, and some white goods. 

The Initial Phase II ESA was completed on October 2008 and consisted of soil characterization, field screening and biased surface soil sampling within the junkyard operation area.  There were 45 surface soil samples collected from 41 locations across the western portion of the Power Dam Road property. The 2009

Phase II ESA was completed October/November 2009 and consisted of soil characterization and biased soil sampling. Seventy-five soil samples were collected, in large part, to determine horizontal and vertical extent of soil contamination. In May 2011, Coleman Engineering installed five temporary groundwater monitoring wells and NRD staff took groundwater samples.


The property is KBIC Trust Land. The property has been held in trust since April 15, 1938 and was leased as residential in June 1982 which consisted of a little over half an acre. During the same time the owner of the residence also had a business lease for 1.7 acres (including the residential lease area) to establish a windmill at the site. Indian Health Service installed a well in October of 1983 and a septic with drain field in 1984. To the knowledge of Tribal staff a windmill was never erected on-site. The only structures included a mobile home trailer and a small storage shed. By 1995 the trailer was unoccupied, dilapidated, and falling apart. In 1997 both the business and residential leases were revoked for non-compliance. In August of 2006, KBIC removed the remnants of the trailer with an Open Dump Cleanup Grant. No environmental sampling, soil removal or fill material were used in the cleanup. Currently the property is being used by adjacent lease holder as a storage area for vehicles and other material. A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment was completed in July 2010. Site issues included: a burn barrel, household hazardous waste containers, soil staining and unknown buried debris. A SAP and HASP was completed and approved by EPA in July 2010. NRD staff completed surface soil sampling on August 12, 2010.